Lace, as a textile with special hollowed-out patterns, first appeared at the end of 15th century as a decorative auxiliary material for clothing. In the Rococo era, it has become a decoration with romantic, mysterious and gentle symbols.
According to the classification of lace production technology, lace can be divided into hand-made lace and machine-made lace. Hand-made lace is generally only used in high-end customization because of its complicated technology and lengthy working hours, while efficient machine-made lace is mostly used in mass-produced clothing.
Handmade lace weaving is time-consuming, and its production is a very complicated process. It is made of silk thread or yarn according to a certain pattern, unlike some traditional laces in China that are hooked or embroidered. A less complicated pattern takes a skilled woman worker a month or more to finish. Because the knitting techniques vary from person to person, lace works are generally done by one person independently, so each handmade lace is unique.
Woven lace is woven by jacquard machine and interwoven by warp and weft. Its raw materials are diversified, such as cotton yarn, silk, rayon, nylon yarn, polyester yarn and gold and silver yarn. Woven lace has compact structure, three-dimensional pattern and rich colors.
The material of composition
According to the materials, lace can be divided into silk lace, cotton lace, wool lace, chemical fiber lace, cellulose lace and mixed lace.
Different materials produce different visual aesthetics. For example, silk is glossy, light and elegant, and looks as smooth as milk. Therefore, silk lace is bright, light and elegant, and with exquisite lace patterns, it gives people an elegant and noble visual aesthetic. Because of its good luster, luxury and elegance, this kind of lace is often matched with fabrics such as brocade, mulberry silk, silk cotton, light-sensitive chemical fiber and so on.
Cotton fabric is natural in luster, soft in texture and easy to fold, giving people a relaxed and natural visual experience. The undyed lace of cotton often presents the original white color of cotton, which is simple and natural, naturally carved and decorated, showing the visual beauty of pastoral leisure.
The style of wool fabric is crisp, giving people a solemn and serious feeling. Worsted fabrics are mostly thin and medium-sized, and are often used in official and social occasions. Therefore, wool is rarely used in lace fabrics, and with the innovation of lace technology, the wool-permeable lace made by knitting technology or the lace made by combining lace with mohair wool by embroidery technology can also give people a thick and warm feeling, presenting a different natural hollowed-out visual aesthetic feeling.
Modern lace materials are mostly polyester, nylon, spandex or synthetic lace blended with cotton, silk, wool and cashmere. Natural fibers combine the advantages of nylon and spandex in wear resistance, moisture absorption and elasticity, thus greatly improving the performance of lace, increasing the elasticity, making the fabric soft and not easy to wear, and having good drape performance. When it is applied to clothing and home textiles in a large area, the lace is elegant and has a good drape, which can show a very romantic and beautiful appearance.
Regenerated cellulose lace refers to lace made of natural renewable cellulose, which is environmentally friendly and sustainable. Regenerated cellulose includes modal, milk silk, bamboo fiber, Tencel, pearl fiber and so on, especially water-soluble lace made of milk silk is very popular.
Lace has a long history of development in many countries. During this period, lace pattern designers absorbed the traditional cultures of various countries, and the lace patterns created were also unique and full of different customs. The following is the classification and analysis of lace patterns according to style.
Traditional style of China: the pattern of tangled branches, flowers and clouds.
European classical style: Venetian pattern, Petzley pattern, Arabic scroll grass pattern.
Japanese and Korean aesthetic style: Edo chrysanthemum pattern, small flower pattern and small geometric pattern.
Modern minimalist style: geometric patterns, letter patterns, texture patterns, Persian patterns, Indian patterns.
Small flower patterns with natural pastoral style scattered patterns.
Lace is widely used in modern home textile products, and it will show different effects with different styles of bedding. Whether it is small, fresh, elegant, extravagant or romantic, lace plays a vital role.